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Unit 5: Crisis and Change

Lesson H: From Hot to Cold War

Key Terms

Key Term Definition
Berlin Blockade an effort to cut off food, supplies, communications or trade from a country or region by force using ships or armies; during the Cold War, the U.S.S.R. blocked the Western Allies access to the parts of Berlin under Allied control; the U.S.S.R. wanted to supply Berlin with food and fuel and this would give the Soviets control over the entire city
capitalism an economic system providing free choice and individual incentive for workers, investors, consumers, and business enterprises
Cold War a state of political tension, military rivalry, proxy wars, and economic competition between countries that stops short of a full-scale war; especially the rivalry between the U.S.S.R. and the United States as well as each country's allies that continued from roughly 1946-1991
communism a political and economic theory in which factors of production are collectively owned
d├ętente easing of tension
dictator a political leader with absolute power and authority
domino theory a theory that if one country comes under communist control, then neighboring countries will also come under communist control
Eastern Bloc the countries of eastern and central Europe that were under Soviet domination until the collapse of the Soviet Union (1946-1991)
Iron Curtain boundary between the countries in Eastern and Western Europe during the Cold War
Marshall Plan a United States program of economic aid to rebuild European economies after World War II in order to combat the spread of communism
nationalism the belief that people who share a common history and culture should be loyal to their country
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) an international military alliance in which members agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by an external party; it originally was created to defend western Europe against possible Soviet invasion after World War II but evolved, after the fall of the Soviet Union, into a new role in peacekeeping
Prague Spring a brief period of liberalization in Czechoslovakia, ending in August 1968, during which a program of political, economic, and cultural reform was initiated
proxy war a war instigated by a major power that does not itself become involved
revolution overthrowing an existing government
satellite countries countries that appear to be sovereign, but are actually under the control of another country; countries such as Hungary and Poland under the control of the U.S.S.R. after World War II
trade embargo a prohibition by a government on certain or all trade with a foreign country
Truman Doctrine the principle, first expressed in 1947 by U.S. President Truman, that the U.S. should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or communist insurrection
Warsaw Pact military alliance created in 1955 between the Soviet Union and countries of Eastern Europe

 

Directions: Practice using these terms.

 

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